Citation: Rytkönen, K. T, Erkenbrack, E. M., Poutanen, M., Elo, L. L., Pavlicev, M., Wagner, G. P. (2018). Decidualization of Human Endometrial Stromal Fibroblasts is a Multiphasic Process Involving Distinct Transcriptional Programs. Reproductive Sciences, Online First.
Cells frequently counteract environmental stress by conserved molecular mechanisms, leading to stress mitigation or apoptosis. Increasingly, studies on cellular stress responses intersect with cell type differentiation programs. It is hypothesized that integration of these conserved pathways is a mechanism of stress‐induced evolutionary innovation that is capable of generating novel cell types.
A Conserved Role for VEGF Signaling in Specification of Homologous Mesenchymal Cell Types Positioned at Spatially Distinct Developmental Addresses in Early Development of Sea Urchins
Comparative studies of early development in echinoderms are revealing the tempo and mode of alterations to developmental gene regulatory networks and to the cell types they specify. In euechinoid sea urchins, skeletogenic mesenchyme (SM) ingresses prior to gastrulation at the vegetal pole and aligns into a ring-like array with two bilateral pockets of cells, the sites where spiculogenesis will later occur. In cidaroid sea urchins, the anciently diverged sister clade to euechinoid sea urchins, a homologous SM cell type ingresses later in development, after gastrulation has commenced, and consequently at a distinct developmental address. Thus, a heterochronic shift of ingression of the SM cell type occurred in one of the echinoid lineages. In euechinoids, speci cation and migration of SM are facilitated by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling. We describe spatiotemporal expression of vegf and vegfr and experimental manipulations target- ing VEGF signaling in the cidaroid Eucidaris tribuloides.
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