A Conserved Role for VEGF Signaling in Specification of Homologous Mesenchymal Cell Types Positioned at Spatially Distinct Developmental Addresses in Early Development of Sea Urchins
Citation: Erkenbrack, E. M., Petsios, E. (2017). A conserved role for VEGF signaling in specification of homologous mesenchymal cell types positioned at spatially distinct developmental addresses in early development of sea urchins. J Exp Zool (Mol Dev Evol) 328(5): 423-432.
Comparative studies of early development in echinoderms are revealing the tempo and mode of alterations to developmental gene regulatory networks and to the cell types they specify. In euechinoid sea urchins, skeletogenic mesenchyme (SM) ingresses prior to gastrulation at the vegetal pole and aligns into a ring-like array with two bilateral pockets of cells, the sites where spiculogenesis will later occur. In cidaroid sea urchins, the anciently diverged sister clade to euechinoid sea urchins, a homologous SM cell type ingresses later in development, after gastrulation has commenced, and consequently at a distinct developmental address. Thus, a heterochronic shift of ingression of the SM cell type occurred in one of the echinoid lineages. In euechinoids, specification and migration of SM are facilitated by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling. We describe spatiotemporal expression of vegf and vegfr and experimental manipulations targeting VEGF signaling in the cidaroid Eucidaris tribuloides. Spatially, vegf and vegfr mRNA localizes similarly as in euechinoids, suggesting conserved deployment in echinoids despite their spatially distinct development addresses of ingression. Inhibition of VEGF signaling in E. tribuloides suggests its role in SM specification is conserved in echinoids. Temporal discrepancies between the onset of vegf expression and SM ingression likely result in previous observations of SM “random wandering” behavior. Our results indicate that, although the SM cell type in echinoids ingresses into distinct developmental landscapes, it retains a signaling mechanism that restricts their spatial localization to a conserved developmental address where spiculogenesis later occurs.

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Divergence of ectodermal and mesodermal gene regulatory network linkages in early development of sea urchins

Developmental gene regulatory networks (GRNs) are assemblages of gene regulatory interactions that direct ontogeny of animal body plans. Studies of GRNs operating in the early development of euechinoid sea urchins have revealed that little appreciable change has occurred since their divergence ∼90 million years ago (mya). These observations suggest that strong conservation of GRN architecture was maintained in early development of the sea urchin lineage. Testing whether this holds for all sea urchins necessitates comparative analyses of echinoid taxa that diverged deeper in geological time. Recent studies highlighted extensive divergence of skeletogenic mesoderm specification in the sister clade of euechinoids, the cidaroids, suggesting that comparative analyses of cidaroid GRN architecture may confer a greater understanding of the evolutionary dynamics of developmental GRNs. Here I report spatiotemporal patterning of 55 regulatory genes and perturbation analyses of key regulatory genes involved in euechinoid oral–aboral patterning of nonskeletogenic mesodermal and ectodermal domains in early development of the cidaroid Eucidaris tribuloides. These results indicate that developmental GRNs directing mesodermal and ectodermal specification have undergone marked alterations since the divergence of cidaroids and euechinoids. Notably, statistical and clustering analyses of echinoid temporal gene expression datasets indicate that regulation of mesodermal genes has diverged more markedly than regulation of ectodermal genes. Although research on indirect-developing euechinoid sea urchins suggests strong conservation of GRN circuitry during early embryogenesis, this study indicates that since the divergence of cidaroids and euechinoids, developmental GRNs have undergone significant, cell type–biased alterations.

Paleogenomics of echinoids reveals an ancient origin for the double-negative specification of micromeres in sea urchins

Establishing a timeline for the evolution of novelties is a common, unifying goal at the intersection of evolutionary and developmental biology. Analyses of gene regulatory networks (GRNs) provides the ability to understand the underlying genetic and developmental mechanisms responsible for the origin of morphological structures both in the development of an individual and across entire evolutionary lineages. Accurately dating GRN novelties, thereby establishing a timeline for GRN evolution, is necessary to answer questions about the rate at which GRNs and their subcircuits evolve, and to tie their evolution to paleoenvironmental and paleoecological changes. Paleogenomics unites the fossil record and all aspects of deep time, with modern genomics and developmental biology to understand the evolution of genomes in evolutionary time. Recent work on the regulatory genomic basis of development in cidaroid echinoids, sand dollars, heart urchins, and other nonmodel echinoderms provides an ideal dataset with which to explore GRN evolution in a comparative framework. Using divergence time estimation and ancestral state reconstructions, we have determined the age of the double-negative gate (DNG), the subcircuit which specifies micromeres and skeletogenic cells in Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. We have determined that the DNG has likely been used for euechinoid echinoid micromere specification since at least the Late Triassic. The innovation of the DNG thus predates the burst of post-Paleozoic echinoid morphological diversification that began in the Early Jurassic. Paleogenomics has wide applicability for the integration of deep time and molecular developmental data, and has wide utility in rigorously establishing timelines for GRN evolution.
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