Citation: Wagner, G.P., Erkenbrack, E. M., & Love, A.C. (2019). Stress-induced evolutionary innovation: A mechanism for the origin of cell types. BioEssays, 41(4), pp.
Diverse sampling of organisms across the five ma- jor classes in the phylum Echinodermata is beginning to reveal much about the structure and function of gene regulatory net- works (GRNs) in development and evolution. Sea urchins are the most studied clade within this phylum, and recent work suggests there has been dramatic rewiring at the top of the skeletogenic GRN along the lineage leading to extant mem- bers of the euechinoid sea urchins. Such rewiring likely ac- counts for some of the observed developmental differences between the two major subclasses of sea urchins—cidaroids and euechinoids.
Production of fungal and bacterial growth modulating secondary metabolites is widespread among mycorrhiza-associated streptomycetes
Studies on mycorrhiza associated bacteria suggest that bacterial-fungal interactions play important roles during mycorrhiza formation and affect plant health. We surveyed Streptomyces Actinobacteria, known as antibiotic producers and antagonists of fungi, from Norway spruce mycorrhizas with predominantlyPiloderma species as the fungal partner. Mycorrhiza associated streptomycetes appear to have an important role in inhibiting the growth of fungi and bacteria. Additionally, our study indicates that the Streptomyces strains, which are not general antagonists of fungi, may produce still un-described metabolites.
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